vR Ops Super Metrics

Super Metric is a feature that I use heavily. When you download Operationalize Your World, you get >70 of them. If you compare vR Ops 6.3 and 6.7, you will notice we’ve added new metrics which were originally super metrics.

They complement regular metrics, as shown by the following shows table:

I’ve never met 2 customers with identical requirements. 2 customers can adopt identical architecture, but will always operate it differently. Operations is unique like fingerprint. Super Metrics enable that bespoke customisation.

I’ve used them for a few years by now. Here is how they have been useful to me:

As a constant

  • You simply enter the constant value. Yes, that’s all!

To convert units

  • You use the $This. Also, use metric= and not attribute= as you’re dealing with 1 object.

To get a summary from a group

  • How many VMs in a cluster is facing high CPU Ready? You can use the Count and Where clause to answer it. Apply this super metric to the cluster object.
  • Is any of the VM facing high CPU Ready? If yes, how high? You can use the Max (VM CPU Ready) and apply it at the World object.
  • I use the function Count, Min, Max, Average. If needed, I use Where Clause to filter the selection.

To answer higher level question

  • A higher-level question resonates more with senior management, as they care less about low level technical details. I build super metric on top of super metric, until the highest-level meets my need. Layering super metric also enables me to drill down, when I see the higher level number is giving warning.
  • What’s the uptime of Tier 1 VMs? The answer you expect is certainly 100%. The mathematics to answer that seemingly simple question is actually very complex. Super metric enables me to implement the maths, as you can see here.

To provide a common metric that depends on the policy.

  • In Operationalize Your World, you get Performance SLA. Notice the line automatically adjust depending the class of service. You know that the SLA line is a metric. If you have 3 class of services (Gold, Silver, Bronze), you have 3 different metrics, 1 for each policy. So how does it know which SLA to display in the widget? I use the Max function, knowing that a VM can only have 1 SLA.

Summary of Features

Here are the 5 features I used to implement all the super metrics in Operationalize Your World:

  • $This
  • Metric vs Attribute
  • Where clause
    • Useful in comparing against a value. A limitation here is the value has to be a constant. It can’t be another metric.
  • IF Statement
    • The VM KPI has 21 IF statements. I need to categorise value into Green, Yellow, Orange, Red. That’s 3 IF statements, nested as 1. I need to consider 7 factors. Since each factor has 3 IF statements, the total is 21.
  • Count, Max, Min, Sum

I’m aware of the usability and functionality enhancements, and am working to enhance it. As always, I welcome your feedback, as it’s valuable to have datapoints.

Hope you find super metrics as useful as I have.

Large Scale vSAN Monitoring

Large scale VMware vSAN operations raises the need for easier and faster monitoring. With many and large vSAN clusters, monitoring and troubleshooting become more challenging. To illustrate, let’s take a single vSAN cluster with the following setup:

Here are some of the questions you want to ask in day to day operations:

  • Is any of the ESXi running high CPU utilization?
  • Is any of the ESXi running high Memory utilization?
  • Is any of the NIC running high utilization?
    • With 4 NIC per ESXi, you have 40 TX + 40 RX metrics.
  • Is vSAN vmkernel network congested?
  • Is the Read Cache used?
  • Is the Write Buffer sufficient?
  • Is the Cache Tier performing fast?
    • Each disk has 4 metrics: Read Cache Read Latency, Read Cache Write Latency, Write Buffer Write Latency, Write Buffer Read Latency
    • Since there are 20 disks, you need to check 80 counters
  • Is the Capacity Disks performing fast?
    • Check both Read and Write latency.
    • Total 120 x 2 = 240 counters.
  • Is any of the Disk Group running low on space?
  • Is any of the Disk Group facing congestion?
    • You want to check both the max and count the number of occurrence > 60.
  • Is there outstanding IO on any of the Disk Group?

If you add them the above, you are looking at 530 metrics for this vSAN cluster. And that’s just 1 point in time. In 1 month you’re looking at 530 x 8766 = 4.6+ millions data points!

How do you monitor millions of data so you can be proactive?

vRealize Operation 6.7 sports vSAN KPIs. We collapsed each of those questions. So you only have 12 metrics to check instead of 530, without losing any insight. In fact, you get better early warning, as we hide the average. Early Warning is critical as buying hardware is more than a trip to local DIY hardware store.

The KPIs achieve this simplification by using supermetrics:

Using Min, Max, Count, it picks the early warning.

The KPI has been a hit with customers. But it falls short when you have many vSAN clusters. If you have say 25 hybrid clusters and 25 All Flash clusters, you need to check 50 clusters. While you can click 50x, what you want is to see all 50 at the same time.

This means we need to aggregate the metrics further. There should only be 1 and only 1 metric per cluster.

The challenge is the KPI has different units and scale. How do we normalize them into Green, Yellow, Orange and Red?

We do it by defining a normalization table. We need 1 table for All Flash and 1 for Hybrid, as they have different KPI and threshold. Here is the table for All Flash:

Read Cache Hit Rate (%) is missing from the above as it’s not applicable to All Flash. It does not have dedicated Read Cache.

I’m setting CPU Ready and CPU Co-Stop at 1%, so we can catch early warning. For RAM, as most ESXi sports 512 GB RAM, I set the RAM Contention at 0%.

The metrics that I’m not sure if the Disk Group Congestion. It’s based on 60, which I think is a good starting point in general.

Here is the table for Hybrid:

Do you know why I do not have Utilization counter (e.g. CPU Utilization) there?

Utilization does not impact performance. ESXi running at 99% is not slower than ESXi running at 1%, so long there is no contention or latency. This is vSAN KPI, not vSAN KUI (Key Utilization Indicators). Yes, vSAN KUI needs its own table.

Once you have the table, you can map into threshold. I use Green = 100, Yellow = 67, Orange = 33, Red = 0. I use 0 – 100 scale so it’s easier to see the relative movement. If you don’t want to be confused with %, you can use 0 – 10 or 0 – 50.

vSAN Performance is the average of all these. We are not taking the worst to prevent 1 value from keeping it red all the time. If you take the worst, the value will likely remain constant. That’s not good, as pattern is important in monitoring. The relative movement can be more important than the absolute value.

You implement the above using super metric. You need 2 super metrics, 1 for Hybrid and 1 for All Flash. For simplicity, I’d not use Policy but rather apply both super metrics to all my vSAN clusters. I then use the correct metrics when building the dashboard.

Hope you find it useful.

VM Key Performance Indicators

What are the counters that can impact a VM performance? The diagram may surprise you as it does not follow popular thinking. Notice the red dotted line. It means that Utilization does not impact performance.

Take VM CPU for example. You do want the VM to run at 100% CPU utilization, as that means the CPU is doing as much work as possible. The VM performance is not impacted so long it has no queue. It’s handling 100% of the demand perfectly. Specific to VM, a queue may happen inside the VM (read: Guest OS) or outside the VM (read: hypervisor layer).

Now, a VM running at 100% certainly has no more capacity for additional workload. It is full. If you think the VM needs to run more workload in the future, then add more resource. If not, then adding more CPU will in fact slow down its performance. This is one reason why I was a proponent of dropping the Stress counter in vR Ops. It was based on Demand counter.

Let’s switch to ESXi. An ESXi does not have performance problem if it’s not struggling to meet demand. If utilization = 100%, but none of its VMs are contending for resource, that’s in fact the perfect situation. You’re getting 100% of your money!

While Capacity and Performance are closely related, they are not identical.

Now that we’re clear on the difference between VM Performance and VM Capacity, let’s zoom into the counters. The following diagram shows the actual counters on each layer (Guest OS, VM and ESXi) that could impact performance.

Do you agree with the choice of counters? 🙂

Have you worked out why CPU Demand is not there? Notice I’m using Run – Overlap. If not, review VM CPU counter and VM RAM counter.

Still disagree? Let me know at e1@vmware.com. Michael Ryom emailed me, pointing out that since utilization does not impact performance, I should not put the counters there. Good point, and thank you Michael. I’ve updated the blog so now it states “that could impact performance”.

Some of the above counters are not available unless you install an agent. Some counters, such as Disk Driver queue, is not available unless you install specific tracing software. Specific to Windows storage driver, there is no API so agent won’t help.

Some counters are OS specific. I think Committed % does not impact Linux the way it impacts Windows, due to difference in Memory Management.

Some counters do not have established or proven guidelines. Outstanding IO is one such counter. Storage specialists told me that so long latency is low, the OIO matters less. I’m keen to hear your real world experience.

If you do not want to deploy agent (which I agree, as they incur overhead operationally), here is what you can monitor today with vRealize Operations + vSphere Tools.

The CPU Context Switch is an interesting one. I have not found a guidance on what a bad value is. Read this and let me know your thought. For RAM Page-In Rate, I think a percentage is better than absolute. My take is 1% is not good. What’s your take?

Which counters should you use for your IaaS Performance SLA? Here is my recommendation:

  • CPU Ready.
  • RAM Contention
  • Network TX Dropped Packet.
  • Disk Latency

Do you know why I only use CPU Ready, and exclude CPU Co-Stop and CPU Contention? Email me the answer 🙂 It took me years to vrealize the mistake.

I’m in favour of IaaS SLA, but not Application SLA. Application SLA depends on each apps, which Infra team does not control.

Hope it’s useful. In the next blog, I will share how you can quickly monitor the counters above on thousands of VMs.